Every state allows pharmacists to administer immunizations, but laws vary widely in the details surrounding that authorization. There are three main categories to consider when looking at pharmacists’ vaccination authority by state:
- Which vaccines can be administered: Can pharmacists administer all FDA-approved vaccines, CDC/ACIP-recommended vaccines, or only vaccines specifically listed in statute?
- Who prescribes the vaccine for a patient: The pharmacist (independent authority) or another healthcare provider via protocol or prescription (dependent authority)?
- What patient can receive a vaccine from a pharmacist: Are there age ranges or other limits in place, and are they the same for all vaccines the pharmacist is allowed to administer, or does it vary depending on the vaccine?
The interactive map below provides a visual representation of how broad pharmacists’ vaccination authority is in each state.
Click below for a detailed updated resource of pharmacist authority to provide vaccinations, by vaccination type, as of September 2020.
2021 Enacted Legislation – Updates to Immunization Authority
- Arkansas HB 1134: Authorizes pharmacists to independently prescribe and administer vaccines (and medications treating adverse reactions to vaccines) to persons 3 years of age and older [Effective July 30, 2021]
- Arkansas HB 1135: Authorizes pharmacy technicians to administer vaccines to persons 3 years of age and older, if delegated by a supervising pharmacist [Effective July 30, 2021]
- Colorado (regulatory change): Aligns state regulations with federal guidance allowing pharmacy technicians to administer immunizations and simplifies the record keeping requirements for pharmacists and pharmacies when administering vaccines [Effective March 17, 2021]
- Georgia SB 46: Authorizes pharmacists to administer all vaccines on the ACIP adult immunization schedules to individuals 18 and older [Effective May 10, 2021]
- Indiana HB 1468: Authorizes pharmacists and technicians to administer immunizations for coronavirus and allows registered nurses to supervise pharmacist interns or student pharmacists when administering immunizations. [Effective April 29, 2021]
- North Dakota SB 2279: Permits board of pharmacy to adopt rules allowing pharmacy technicians to administer drugs under the direct supervision of a pharmacist [Effective March 25, 2021; awaiting board rules]
- Ohio HB 6: Authorizes pharmacists to administer any vaccine to individuals 13 and older and both influenza and COVID-19 vaccines to individuals age 7-13 without a prescription [Effective May 14, 2021]
- Oklahoma SB 398: Authorizes pharmacists to administer any FDA approved or authorized vaccine without a prescription, standing order, or similar arrangement [Effective April 22, 2021]
- Virginia HB 2079: Authorizes pharmacists to independently prescribe and administer (via statewide protocol) vaccines included on a CDC Immunization Schedule or that have an FDA emergency use authorization to persons 18 years of age or older [Effective July 1, 2021]
- Wisconsin AB 4: Authorizes pharmacy technicians and student pharmacists (interns) to administer vaccines and other drugs under direct supervision of a health care provider [Effective February 21, 2021]
- The American Journal of Managed Care: The Essential Role of Community Pharmacies in Expanding Access to Vaccines
- Pharmacy Times: The Value of Pharmacy Immunization
- Revcycle Intelligence: Shifting Vaccinations to the Pharmacy Lowers Healthcare Costs
- HHS declaration of expanding pharmacist authority to give all childhood vaccines
- HHS declaration of pharmacist authority to give COVID-19 vaccines
- USA Today article: Pharmacists in all 50 states can give childhood shots to prevent future outbreaks
- CNN article: Pharmacists now allowed to administer childhood vaccines
- CDC recommended vaccine-related courses
- APhA Immunization Delivery Certificate
- Pediatric Vaccine Refresher for Pharmacists
- PREP Act Amendments and Declarations
- American Disease Prevention Coalition
- Explanation of HHS declaration from APhA
- Immunize.org (includes Vaccine Information Statements, CDC schedules, patient handouts, clinic tools, state laws/mandates)
- CDC guidance for pharmacies during COVID-19
- Preparing for the COVID-19 vaccine ASTHO article
- Adult Immunization NEHI brief
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